What is an RPC Node? An In-Depth Overview

Last Updated:
May 19, 2023
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In the world of blockchain technology, the term 'RPC node' is frequently used but often misunderstood. This article aims to demystify the concept, offering a comprehensive explanation of what an RPC node is. Let's dive in.

In the world of blockchain technology, the term 'RPC node' is frequently used but often misunderstood. This article aims to demystify the concept, offering a comprehensive explanation of what an RPC node is, how it functions, and why it's crucial to the operation of a blockchain network.

Understanding the Basics

RPC stands for 'Remote Procedure Call', a protocol that one program uses to request a service from a program located in another computer in a network without having to understand the network's details. An RPC node, in the context of blockchain, is essentially a server that uses this protocol to communicate with the blockchain network.

In more straightforward terms, an RPC node acts as a bridge connecting an application with a blockchain network. It translates standard HTTP requests into a language the blockchain can understand, processes the blockchain's response, and then translates it back into a format the application can interpret.

RPC Nodes and Blockchain

In a blockchain network, nodes are the individual parts of the larger data structure. Each node contains a copy of a ledger that holds all transactions that have occurred within the network. RPC nodes play a crucial role in this network because they allow external applications to interact with the blockchain.

Let's consider an example to understand this better. Say you have a cryptocurrency wallet application. This application needs to fetch details like your transaction history or the current balance of your account. It doesn't inherently know how to speak the blockchain's 'language' or read the ledger directly. This is where the RPC node comes in. The application sends a request to the RPC node, which translates it, communicates with the blockchain network, retrieves the required information, and sends it back to the application.

How Does an RPC Node Work?

The working of an RPC node can be understood through three primary steps: request, process, and response.

  • Request: The client application sends a request to the RPC node. This request is typically an HTTP message containing specific instructions, such as retrieving the balance of an account or initiating a transaction.
  • Process: The RPC node interprets this request and translates it into a format that the blockchain network can understand. It then sends this request to the appropriate part of the blockchain network.
  • Response: Once the blockchain network has processed the request, it sends the response back to the RPC node. The node translates this response back into a format the application can understand and sends it back to the application.

It's important to note that while this process may seem lengthy, it typically happens in a matter of seconds.

The Importance of RPC Nodes

RPC nodes are critical in making blockchain technology usable and accessible. Without RPC nodes, applications would have to be explicitly programmed to communicate directly with the blockchain, which would require significant resources and expertise.

Moreover, RPC nodes act as a protective layer between the client application and the blockchain. They can validate requests, preventing malformed or malicious instructions from reaching the network. This role is essential in maintaining the security and integrity of the blockchain network.

In summary, an RPC node acts as a translator and a gatekeeper, enabling efficient communication between applications and the blockchain network while also safeguarding the network's health.

Ethereum RPC Nodes: A Deep Dive

Ethereum RPC nodes, which serve as an excellent example of RPC nodes in practice, facilitate the interaction between decentralized applications (dApps) and the Ethereum blockchain. They are crucial for reading blockchain data or sending transaction requests to the network​​.

The dApps, acting as the client, places a request to the RPC node, serving as the server. This request prompts the server for procedure execution through a subroutine, thereby achieving the required interaction with the Ethereum blockchain​​.

RPC nodes are essentially computers with blockchain client software. For instance, some servers run both the Consensus Layer and the Execution Layer infrastructure on the Ethereum blockchain. Variations of nodes on the Ethereum blockchain network include light nodes, archival nodes, and full nodes. Solana blockchain, on the other hand, features validator and RPC nodes. While validator nodes are responsible for running the Solana consensus protocol and earning rewards for block validation, RPC nodes on Solana work as gateways for Solana dApps to obtain relevant blockchain information​​.

RPC Endpoints

An important concept related to RPC nodes is RPC endpoints, which are network locations where a dApp sends RPC requests for accessing server data. Therefore, all RPC nodes feature RPC endpoints, and conversely, all RPC endpoints work on RPC nodes​​.

RPC endpoints on the Ethereum network are broadly classified into two primary categories: public and private, with alternative RPC endpoints supporting the operations of both.

  • Public RPC Endpoint: Public RPC endpoints are shared and restricted resources operating on RPC nodes where any individual can make requests. However, these endpoints do not support production-grade applications and lack customer support mechanisms. They are mainly suitable for allowing any individual to access data from the blockchain network​.
  • Private RPC Endpoint: These endpoints cater to the needs of a specific dApp and avoid requests by other programs. As a result, private RPC endpoints could offer better speed and consistency with RPC nodes. They also facilitate effective maintenance of explicit service-level agreements or SLAs, which guarantee higher performance​​.
  • Alternative RPC Endpoint: These endpoints serve as backups to avoid downtime and maintain a smooth user experience in dApps. The development of dApps with alternative RPC endpoints is one of the best practices for avoiding a single point of failure for dApps​​.

Working of Ethereum RPC Nodes

When a dApp initiates a subroutine or a request for data from the Ethereum blockchain, the RPC node kicks into action. It retrieves the necessary requests through the blockchain and sends the required payload to the dApps​​.

By ensuring seamless interaction between dApps and blockchain networks, RPC nodes play a pivotal role in the smooth operation of blockchain networks. They represent a vital cog in the wheel of blockchain infrastructure, enabling the technology's innovative potential to be harnessed in a secure and efficient manner.


In conclusion, RPC nodes function as the critical intermediaries that bridge the gap between applications and blockchain networks, enabling efficient and secure communication. They translate requests from applications into a language that the blockchain can understand, carry out the necessary procedures on the blockchain network, and relay the results back to the applications in an understandable format.

In the context of Ethereum, RPC nodes not only facilitate interaction with the Ethereum blockchain but also offer important features like public, private, and alternative RPC endpoints. These allow individual access to blockchain data, cater to specific dApp needs, and provide backup to avoid downtime, respectively.

Overall, the role of RPC nodes in blockchain technology cannot be overstated. They make blockchain accessible, usable, and secure, thereby contributing significantly to the technology's transformative potential. As blockchain technology continues to evolve and find new applications, the importance and functionality of RPC nodes are only set to increase. Understanding their workings, therefore, equips us to better comprehend and navigate the world of blockchain.